Fossil notes

Agrigento Girgentiis the old name of Agrigento. The town is built on Early Pleistocene calcarenites, overlaying a Plio-Pleistocene, mostly clayey sequence (Ruggieri & Greco, 1967). A similar succession crops out near Sciacca, 50 km NW of Agrigento. The molluscan fauna reported by Philippi seems to be typically Pleistocene in age.
Buccheri The geological formations cropping out in the area of Buccheri consist of marly, Langhian-Messinian deposits (Tellaro Fm.), passing to mainly carbonate deposits, Serravallian-Tortonian in age (Palazzolo Fm.) and to Middle-Late Pliocene vulcanites with intercalations of shallow water sediments (Grasso et al., 1987a). The species reported by Philippi from Buccheri (marked with "B") are from the Pliocene marine beds. Philippi’s list also includes species collected at Sortino ("So"), about 15 km E of Buccheri, from the volcaniclastic-sedimentary deposits of the Carlentini Fm. (Tortonian), which overlay organogenic calcarenites, Oligo-Miocene in age, of the Monti Climiti Fm. (Grasso et al., 1987a). Fossils were from the Tortonian volcaniclastic-sedimentary beds, as indicated by Philippi ("in tufo basaltico"). The geological characters of the nearby locality Melilli are similar to those of Sortino.
Caltagirone Caltagirone is near the western margin of the Gela-Catania Trough, where calcarenitic, sandy and fine-grained deposits, Early Pleistocene in age, mostly of shallow water setting, crop out widely (Grasso, 2000). Similar geological characters are also present at Grammichele and Mineo, both reported by Philippi.
Caltanissetta In central Sicily, the most recent marine formations consists of shelf sandy, calcarenitic and fine-grained deposits, ranging from Middle Pliocene to Early Pleistocene in age. The molluscan fauna reported by Philippi is, at leastin part, Pleistocene in age as indicated by the occurrence of Arctica islandica. See also Enna.
Le Carrubbare The locality reported by Philippi is the modern Contrada Carrubara, near Reggio Calabria and Nasiti and Terreti (see below). The molluscan fauna seems to be typically Pleistocene in age. Fossilis from this locality were also reported by Seguenza and Neviani. See also Reggio Calabria
Castrogiovanni See Enna
Catanzaro See Crotone
Cefali It is the modern Cifali or Cibali, a subperipheral quarter of Catania. Outcrops are now mostly covered by urbanization. In the area of Catania, Early-Middle Pleistocene beds crop out below the volcanic formations formed by the Etna lava flows (AA.VV., 1979). They are mostly fine-grained ("sub-Etnean Clays") near the coast, becoming coarser in the inland. See also Nizzeti.
Crotone The molluscan fauna, consisting of shallow water and bathyal species, is from Crotone and the nearby localities Cutro, S. Mauro (= San Mauro Marchesato), Santa Severina and Scandali (= Scandale). A thick, clayey, Plio-Pleistocene sequence, of deep-water deposition, crops out near Crotone. This sequence includes the Pliocene/Pleistocene stratotype boundary (Aguirre & Pasini, 1985).
Girgenti See Agrigento
Gravina Calcarenitic and calciruditic shelf deposits crop out widely in the area of Gravina in Puglia (Gravina Calcarenites Fm.). Age is Plio-Pleistocene, not older than the Middle-Late Pliocene (Ciaranfi et al., 1988). Sandy deposits of Early-Middle Pleistocene age are also present. The molluscan fauna listed by Philippi, collected by Scacchi, can be generically referred to as Plio-Pleistocene.
Enna Castrogiovanni is the old name (up to 1927) of Enna. The town is built on Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene calcarenites, overlaying clayey Pliocene deposits. Similar geological characters are also present in the area of Piazza Armerina, about 20 km S of Enna. See also Caltanissetta.
Ischia Campi Flegrei, together with the Procida and IschiaIslands, belong to the same volcanic district, not older than 50,000 years. The most recent eruption occurred in 1538 and led to the formation of Monte Nuovo near Pozzuoli. The marine deposits are geologically recent (Late Pleistocene-Holocene) and of markedly shallow water deposition. See also Pozzuoli.
Lamato Philippi’s locality is in the inner part of the Fiume Lamatovalley, near Tiriolo. The molluscan fauna is typically Quaternary and includes both shallow water and bathyal species.
Messina The Messina Strait is geologically complex and strongly controlled by the Plio-Quaternary tectonics (Barrier, 1987). Wide vertical displacements allowed bathyal sediments to the deposited. The molluscan fauna reported by Philippi, collected by Otto, comprises both shelf and bathyal species, of Plio-Plistocene age. See also Reggio Calabria.
Melazzo The marine formations cropping out near Milazzo consist of bathyal Pliocene marls and overlaying Pleistocene ("Milazzian") sands with a shallow water molluscan fauna (Ruggieri & Greco, 1965). The species reported by Philippi were clearly from the Pleistocene deposits.
Militello Pleistocene calcarenites ("tufo") and organogenic sands, associated with Plio-Pleistocene vulcanites and volcaniclastic deposits crop out in the area of Militello in Val di Catania and Palagonia (Grasso et al., 1987b). Similar formations are also present at Scordia. The molluscan fauna reported by Philippi is mainly form shelf deposits.
Monasterace The few species reported by Philippi from Monasterace were mostly from Pleistocene bathyal deposits. Philippi cited also Bianco, south of Monasterace, where Pleistocene bathyal deposits crop out (Di Geronimo & La Perna, 1997).
Monteleone Monteleone is the old name (up to 1928) of Vibo Valentia. The town is built on continental deposits but in the valley floor S and E of the town, marine formations crop out. They are Early-Middle Pliocene clays, passing to Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene sands (Marchetti, 1968). The molluscan fauna reported by Philippi comprises only shelf species and has a Plio-Pleistocene nature.
Nasiti, Terreti Nasiti and Terreti are located in the inland of Reggio Calabria. The molluscan fauna reported by Philippi is Plio-Pleistocene in age. See also Reggio Calabria.
Nizzeti Nizzeti is a locality near the coast, few km N of Catania, near Aci Castello, where Pleistocene, clayey deposits of outer shelf deposition crop out (AA.VV., 1979). Late Pleistocene marine terraces with a shallow water fossil fauna are also present, and the species reported by Philippi seem to be mostly from the terraces. See also Cefali.
Palermo Most of the area of Palermo consists of shelf calcarenitic and clayey deposits, Early Pleistocene in age (up to the Sicilian stage), which are also present at the foot of Monte Pellegrino (Ruggieri, 1971). Many fossil species reported by Monterosato, Aradas and Brugnone are from these formations. Philippi’s fossils were collected from calcarenites ("in calcareo") and fine grained beds ("in argilla"). Mardolce, now Maredolce, near Palermo is also frequently cited. Fossils were from Pleistocene calcarenites.
Pezzo Pezzo is the modern Punta Pezzo, near Villa San Giovanni, 13 km N of Reggio Calabria. The molluscan fauna reported by Philippi seems typically Pleistocene in age and mainly from shelf deposists. See also Reggio Calabria.
Piazza See Enna
Puteolis It is the modern Pozzuoli. The fossil molluscan fauna was collected from a locality near the coast "not far from Monte Nuovo at 70-80 feet above sea level" together with Scacchi, and within the urban area, from an excavation for the construction of the hospital. Fossils are geologically recent (Late Pleistocene-Holocene). See also Ischia.
Reggio Calabria The geological setting of Reggio Calabria and of the Calabrian side of the Messina Strait is similar to that of Messina, with frequent and sharp changes in depositional characters and fossil content due to strong Plio-Pleistocene tectonics. Age ranges from Early Pliocene to Late Pleistocene (Barrier, 1987). Texture is often coarse (sandy-gravelly) and with structures indicative of strong bottom currents. Deep water facies, including White Corals banks, are also present. See also Messina.
Sciacca See Agrigento
Siracusa Siracusa is built on Miocene calcarenites (Monte Carruba and Monti Climiti Fms.) and on coarse, cross-bedded calcarenites, Middle Pleistocene in age. Greyish-bluish clays with intercalating Arctica islandica sandy beds are present in the inland (Grasso et al., 1987a). Philippi’s molluscan fauna is typically Quaterrnary in age.
Tarentum Clayey deposits, Early Pleistocene in age ("Sub-Apennine Clays"), crop out in the area of Taranto, whereas Pio-Pleistocene calcarenites of shallow water deposition (Gravina Calcarenites Fm.) are mostly exposed in the inland (Robba, 1969; Ciaranfi et al., 1988). Tyrrhenian beds are present near the coast. The molluscan fauna reported by Philippi was collected together with Scacchi and seems mainly Pleistocene in age. See also Gravina in Puglia.